2014 SGR

The question of whether cigarette smoking was associated with lung cancer was central to the expansion of epidemiology into the study of chronic diseases in the 1950s. The culmination of this era was the 1964 report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, a landmark document that included an objective synthesis of the evidence of the health consequences of smoking according to causal criteria. The Report concluded that cigarette smoking was a cause of lung cancer in men and sufficient in scope that "remedial action" was warranted at the societal level. 

The 2014 Surgeon General's Report commemorates the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Report. The evidence on the health consequences of smoking has been updated many times in Surgeon General's Reports since 1964. These have summarized our increasingly greater understanding of the broad spectrum of the deleterious health effects of exposure to tobacco smoke across most major organ systems. In turn, this evidence has been translated into tobacco control strategies implemented to protect the public's health. The Surgeon General’s Report process is an enduring example of evidence-based public health in practice. Substantial progress has been made, but cigarette smoking remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. 

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2012 SGR

Tobacco use imposes enormous public health and financial costs on this nation—costs that are completely avoidable. Until we end tobacco use, more young people will become addicted, more people will become sick, and more families will be devastated by the loss of loved ones. The simple fact is that we cannot end the tobacco epidemic without focusing our efforts on young people. Nearly 100% of adults who smoke every day started smoking when they were 26 years of age or younger, so prevention is the key. The tobacco industry spends almost $10 billion a year to market its products, half of all movies for children under 13 contain scenes of tobacco use, half of our states continue to allow smoking in public places, and images and messages normalize tobacco use in magazines, on the Internet, and at retail stores frequented by youth. With a quarter of all high school seniors and a third of all young adults smoking, and with progress in reducing prevalence slowing dramatically, the time for action is now.  

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2011 NIST

The discovery of the new family of iron-based high transition temperature superconductors has offered a new route to high transition temperatures, breaking the copper-oxide based superconductor monopoly.  

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2010 SGR

In 1964, the Surgeon General released a landmark report on the dangers of smoking. During the intervening 45 years, 29 Surgeon General’s Reports have documented the overwhelming and conclusive biologic, epidemiologic, behavioral, and pharmacologic evidence that tobacco use is deadly. This Report, How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease, is a comprehensive, scientific discussion of how mainstream and secondhand smoke exposures damage the human body. Decades of research have enabled scientists to identify the specific mechanisms of smoking-related diseases and to characterize them in great detail and those biologic processes of cigarette smoke and disease are the focus of this Report. 

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2010 NIST

The bending modulus of a lipid bilayer, a model for a cell membrane, is a key parameter in understanding its viscoelastic behavior and stability and a key determinant in a number of membrane processes. From a biophysical viewpoint, the bending modulus governs the thermal undulations that could determine short-range interactions between membranes and substrates. 

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2009 NIST

Electrical signals in the nervous system propagate between neurons along axons via electric potentials that are generated by proteins that reside within the cell membranes. Known as voltage-gated ion channels, these proteins allow ions to pass through the cell membrane in a controlled manner.

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2008 NIST

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2007 NIST

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